Common hazel nuts are used mostly for food (fresh or fried nuts, confectionery products, chocolate industry), but it has also pharmaceutical uses (oils, soaps). It can be also used for horticultural purposes. Some kinds of charcoal are produced from its wood. Nut oils are used for oil paints and some other technical purposes.
Major threats are not reported. Eventually, high numbers of deer, livestock and squirrels may limit regeneration. Conifer planting and the discontinuance of woodland management can reduce its abundance locally. Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB), which is caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomola is fatal to trees in the US but it can be controlled by right management.
Common hazel is a deciduous shrub/tree with its height from 3 m to 8 m (15 m), leaves are rounded, hairy on both surfaces. Flowers are monoecious and they are blooming from December to march. Pollination is done by wind. Fruits are ripening in a period from July to September. Fruits are nuts which can be produced in a group up to five together. They are spherical to oval shaped and located in a shell. The nuts contain high content of protein and unsaturated fat also rich in magnesium, copper, manganese, thiamine, vitamin E.
This specie grows mostly in medium – continental zone and Mediterranean climate. Common hazel requires a lot of sun and sufficient moisture in soils, with pH in a range of 5,0 – 8,0. The best types of soil for growth of common hazel are skeletal and carbonate clays. Average precipitation rate is 700 – 800 mm/year and average temperatures 9 – 14 °C.
Common hazel has been managed by coppicing in the past. Today it is mostly grown in orchards in order to produce food (cultivated as a fruit shrub).
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- Krpina, I., Voćarstvo, Nakladni zavod Globus, 2004
- Wanjiku, J., Bohne, H., Drought Reactions of Different Provenances of Corylus avellana L., Conference: Tropentag, At Hohenheim, Germany, Volume: ISBN.978-3-95404-498-6, 2013